2005 Acura MDX Powertrain Part 2
8/31/2004 9:04:00 PM
The MDX features an innovative drive-by-wire throttle system with technology gleaned from the NSX sports car. This second generation drive-by-wire system replaces a conventional throttle cable arrangement with an all-electronic system that senses the throttle pedal position and relays that information to a computer. The computer then performs the actual throttle activation instantaneously. Unlike the NSX system, this system utilizes a DC motor instead of a Step Motor within the throttle body.
The MDX drive-by-wire system works by means of a throttle pedal sensor, a throttle angle sensor, an electronic control unit and a DC motor to control throttle opening and provide fail-safe throttle operation. This system allows for throttle control to be integrated into the VSA and VTM-4 systems and also incorporates the cruise control function. To improve shifting smoothness, the drive-by-wire system controls the throttle during transmission shifts. To maximize driving feel, throttle pedal characteristics are calibrated to be smooth and linear during start up, when driving on ice or other low traction surfaces, and more responsive during acceleration.
SERPENTINE DRIVE BELT
The MDX uses a single, serpentine belt to operate all of the engine's accessory drives. In addition to saving space compared to the dual-belt system used on the previous generation engine, this maintenance-free component features an integral auto tensioner.
DIRECT IGNITION SYSTEM AND KNOCK CONTROL
Maintaining the correct ignition timing throughout all operating conditions is essential to producing maximum power, using fuel efficiently and minimizing emissions. A powertrain control module (PCM) examines various engine functions as well as a block-mounted acoustic knock sensor to determine optimum ignition timing. In the event the engine is supplied with fuel lower in octane than the specified unleaded premium, the PCM retards ignition timing as needed to forestall detonation. As a result, the engine constantly operates at the point of peak efficiency. Spark is supplied to iridium-tipped, long-life spark plugs by six coil units positioned directly over the plugs in the cylinder-head access bores.
105,000 MILE TUNE-UP INTERVALS
Before 105,000 miles of driving, the only maintenance necessary is routine inspections and fluid and filter changes. At 105,000 miles, the valves should be adjusted, the timing belt should be replaced, the water pump should be inspected and the iridium-tipped spark plugs should be replaced.
The MDX employs a high-flow dual exhaust system that helps to generate additional horsepower while still maintaining strict emissions standards. A low-restriction, high-flow exhaust system is crucial to efficient power and torque production. The MDX features a high efficiency system that incorporates several key elements that work in concert with the engine's uniquely designed cylinder heads to help boost performance, reduce tailpipe emissions and trim weight. Major system components include two close-coupled catalytic converters, a secondary underfloor catalytic converter, a centrally positioned, high-flow resonator and a silencer. The close coupled catalytic converters provide almost double the surface opening of the single underfloor unit they replace and mount directly to the cylinder head to reduce light off time, thereby allowing the catalyst to begin cleansing the exhaust as soon possible.
The catalysts, muffling element, and piping are all sized for high flow and low restriction. High-chromium stainless steel is used throughout the exhaust system for excellent durability. The twin exhaust outlets are polished for an attractive appearance.
5-SPEED AUTOMATIC TRANSAXLE
The MDX features a compact 5-speed automatic transmission that utilizes a 4-shaft design layout. This configuration, together with a super flat torque converter allows for a more compact transmission while that produces higher torque capacity to match the powerful engine. The shape of the differential gear and the shape of the oil sump help to reduce the collection of oil in the pan and separate the oil from the gears. This reduction in friction improves efficiency, thereby boosting performance.
A lock-up torque converter is provided to maximize fuel efficiency. Torque-converter lock-up and shift timing are both managed by a 32-bit, PGM-FI CPU that maintains a communications link with the engine's CPU. Gear and clutch materials and the transaxle case itself are all engineered to support towing, off-road driving, and 4-wheel-drive use.
This unit's design utilizes extra-wide gear ratios, which enhance low-speed pulling capability, fuel economy and the ability to cruise quietly on the highway.
Creative use of clutched idler gears permits the transaxle to provide five forward speeds with little more weight or bulk than a typical four-speed automatic. A one-way clutch is provided for first gear to smooth upshift quality. An extra-capacity transmission fluid cooler is offered with the MDX's optional tow package to maintain acceptable lubricant temperatures during heavy-load conditions.
A direct-control strategy provides real-time pressure management of the transmission's clutches. Various safety and control strategies coordinate engine and transmission operation. For example, driveline shocks during up- or downshifts are minimized by momentarily reducing engine torque during the shift. In neutral and park, engine rpm is automatically limited to 5000 rpm.
For driving through hilly terrain, a Grade Logic Control system monitors throttle position, vehicle speed, acceleration and deceleration to avoid hunting and excessive shifting. A lower gear is held for a longer-than-normal period to provide better climbing ability on hills and more engine braking on downhill grades.
VARIABLE TORQUE MANAGEMENT 4-WHEEL-DRIVE (VTM-4®) SYSTEM
After studying various all-wheel- and four-wheel-drive systems offered by the wide variety of SUVs on the market today, MDX engineers concluded that virtually every one had functional shortcomings and was undesirably bulky and heavy. The direct result of that research was the creation of an innovative system that automatically and proactively distributes torque to all four wheels as needed. Called Variable Torque Management 4-wheel-drive (VTM-4®), this new system provides front-wheel drive for dry-pavement cruising conditions and engages all-wheel drive when needed to improve stability or maneuverability. Unlike many competitive systems that use an engagement strategy triggered by wheel slippage, the MDX's VTM-4 system anticipates the need for all-wheel drive and engages the rear wheels before slippage begins. Additional torque is redistributed to the rear for improved performance, especially on low friction surfaces. In addition, the VSA system provides a limited-slip differential effect by applying braking force to a slipping front wheel thereby directing driving force to the wheel with more grip.
Another special feature is a lock button, which temporarily holds engagement of the rear wheels to aid extraction from a slippery ditch or a snow bank.
To avoid the weight and bulk of a conventional transfer case, VTM-4's torque transfer unit is a compact cast-aluminum housing bolted directly to MDX's transaxle. Since this vehicle is engineered for medium-duty off-road capability, the transfer case is a single-speed permanently-engaged device without a low-range. Attached to the front wheel differential's ring gear is a helical gear that provides input torque to the transfer unit. A short horizontal shaft and a hypoid gear set within the case turn the drive ninety degrees, move it to the vehicle center line, and lower its axis by approximately 3.75-inches.
There are three distinct modes of VTM-4 engagement. The first - called the acceleration torque control (ATC) mode - is unique to this system. It works even on dry pavement to proactively distribute driving torque to all four wheels as the MDX accelerates from a stop to cruising speed. One notable benefit of this mode is that traction is immediately available to move the vehicle from rest through a slippery intersection before slippage occurs. (Once a wheel slips, the traction available for forward propulsion and lateral restraint is significantly diminished.) A second advantage is that apportioning drive torque among all four wheels greatly diminishes the likelihood of torque steer. Handling dynamics are also improved. Reducing the propulsive force carried by the front tires leaves more adhesion for steering the vehicle into a tight bend or for holding cornering arc in the middle of a turn. In other words, the MDX's dynamic balance is greatly enhanced by ATC logic.
Rear wheel torque rises smoothly from zero to the maximum setting in proportion to vehicle acceleration (both forward and reverse). At higher speeds, the front wheels are capable of providing the desired thrust with excellent handling so torque delivered to the rear wheels automatically diminishes with speed. While cruising, all driving torque is delivered by the front wheels in the interests of smoothness, quietness, and fuel efficiency.
The second engagement mode uses wheel slippage control logic. If the difference in rotational speed between front and rear wheels rises because of a slippery surface or poor traction at the front of the vehicle, that condition is detected by wheel-speed sensors which are monitored by VTM-4's ECU. In response, the ECU commands an increasing amount of torque for the rear wheels. Torque is proportional to both slip rate and the rate at which the slip rate is increasing. This operation is similar to conventional slip-based all-wheel-drive systems already on the market.
The third mode of all-wheel-drive engagement activates when the driver presses the lock button mounted on the instrument panel. The maximum amount of rear-drive torque is locked in until the vehicle gets moving and exceeds six mph, at which time rear drive torque is gradually diminished. By 18 mph, the lock mode is fully disengaged. When vehicle speed drops below 18 mph, the lock mode automatically reengages. The shift lever must be in the first, second, or reverse-gear position to use the lock mode.
The maximum torque delivered to the rear wheels is sufficient to climb the steepest grade observed on any public road in America - 31 degrees (60-percent slope) - with a two-passenger load on board. The MDX will also move from rest up a 28-degree (53-percent slope) dirt grade. On a split-friction grade (different amounts of traction at each wheel), VTM-4 automatically provides sufficient rear-wheel torque to help the vehicle climb a steep, slippery driveway to enter a garage.
PROPELLER SHAFT AND HALF-SHAFTS
The two-piece propeller shaft that carries drive torque from the transfer case to the rear-drive unit is made of high-strength steel tubing to permit a smaller diameter, thereby improving both ground clearance and interior room. The cross yokes attached at each end by friction welding are forged steel for high strength and low weight. The center support bearing is rubber isolated to block the transmission of driveline noise from the interior of the vehicle. A low-friction plunger joint located near the center of the propeller shaft accommodates relative motion between front- and rear-mounted driveline components. A tuned-mass damper inside the front portion of the propeller shaft cancels any bending tendency in response to powertrain vibrations.
Equal-length, front-wheel half-shafts have a plunger joint at their inboard end and a ball-type universal joint at the wheel end. Rear half-shafts are similar in design but use a double-offset joint at the inboard end and a ball joint at the outboard end. All universal joints are constant-velocity type.
REAR AXLE DRIVE UNIT
The MDX's rear final-drive unit does not use a conventional differential. Instead, a hypoid ring-and-pinion gear set supported by a cast-aluminum housing switches torque from the propeller shaft's longitudinal orientation to the lateral orientation necessary to drive the rear wheels. Surface grinding the ring and pinion gear teeth yields the quiet operation expected of a luxury SUV wearing an Acura nameplate.
A connection from the ring gear to each wheel's half-shaft is made by left- and right-side clutches. Each drive clutch consists of three elements: an electromagnetic coil, a ball-cam device, and a set of 19 wet clutch plates which are similar in design to clutches used in an automatic transmission. Ten of the plates are splined (mechanically connected) to the ring gear while nine of the plates are splined to a half shaft. Left and right clutches are identical.
The VTM-4 system's electronic control unit (ECU) determines torque which is to be distributed to the rear wheels, then electric current is sent to the two electromagnetic coils. The resulting magnetic field moves a rotating steel plate toward each fixed coil. Friction between that steel plate and an adjoining cam plate causes the cam plate to begin turning. As it does, three balls per clutch roll up curved ramps, creating an axial thrust against a clutch-engagement plate. This thrust force compresses the wet clutch plates, thereby engaging drive to the corresponding rear wheel.
Unlike mechanically actuated four-wheel drive systems, the VTM-4 system is infinitely variable. The amount of torque provided to the rear wheels is directly proportional to the electric current sent from the ECU and can be adjusted from zero to a preset maximum. This current constantly changes to deliver the optimum rear torque calculated by the ECU. An internal gear pump circulates VTM-4 fluid to cool and lubricate the clutches, bearings, and gears within the rear drive unit. Use of high-strength, low-weight materials - such as die-cast aluminum for the housing - minimizes the bulk and weight of this hardware, helping to keep the weight of the entire all-wheel-drive system to about 212-pounds.